jobEQ Library - The References Page
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Main research page | references
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The current iWAM questionnaire measures 48 variables that are linked to
16 cognitive patterns. Our tool is the most recent evolution in cognitive
style research, which started of in the beginning of the 20th
century with Jung's work around psychological types as a first milestone. The
second milestone was the development of MBTI�, between 1942 and 1957. The
third milestone came from the development of cognitive science, starting
around 1975. Cognitive scientists found that cognitive patterns differ between
countries as well as between contexts. This lead to several separate new
pathways of which we want to mention 3 examples: the work of Geert Hofstede et
al around cultural differences in patterns, the work of Kolb et al around
learning styles and the work by Leslie Cameron, Ross M. Steward et al. around
the application of cognitive patterns in the context of work (motivation,
working & thinking), which lead to the LAB Profile� in 1986.
Our current iWAM ProfileTM uses the approach of cognitive patterns for the
work-context, and takes into account the cultural differences as well.
- C.G. Jung, 1921, "Psychological Types", Bollingen
Series, Princeton University Press, 1971, ISBN 0-691-01813-8
One of Jung's most important works, and probably the most
famous, this book was originally published in 1921. The current English
translation (A revision by R.F.C. Hull of the translation by H.G.Baynes)
is based on a slightly revised version that is published as Volume 6 of
the collected works and includes some other of Jung's texts on typology.
Isabel Brigss-Myers with Peter B.Myers, 1980, Gifts Differing,
Understanding Personality Type, Davies-Black Publishing, ISBN 0-89106-074-X
This book distinguishes the 4 patterns used by MBTI, one of the oldest
profiling tools still in use. However, this test doesn't differ between
contexts and discusses education as well as relationships and carreer
- Shelle Rose Charvet, 1995, Words That Change Minds - Mastering the
Language of Influence, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubeque, Iowa.
This book is based on the early version of the LAB profile
(13 patterns) as it was taught by Brian Van der Horst in Europe starting
- Bob G. Bodenhamer & L.Michael Hall, 1997, Figuring out People -
Design Engineering with Meta-Programs, Anglo-American Book Company,
The authors of this book did an extensive study of the
material that is available in the field of cognitive sciences and
categorize over 51 cognitive patterns or meta-programs. The book indicates
how to detect these patterns and gives references to sources for further
- Robert J. Sternberg, 1997, "Thinking Styles", Cambridge
University Press (IBM Professor of Psychology & Education", Yale
University), ISBN 0-521-65713-X
This book contains an overview of several cognitive style
models and gives a detailed description the Sternberg-Wagner theory of
thinking styles which includes of 5 cognitive patterns (13 variables) and
contains simple tests for each of these variables.
b) cultural understanding
- Talcot Parsons, 1951, "The Social System", The Free Press,
Talcott Parsons has laid the foundations on which Trompenaers built his cross-cultural database. In particular Talcott researched five concept-pairs or pattern-variables which predict value-orientation. The foundations of this work date back to the book "Structure of Social Action" (Parsons, 1937).
- Geert Hofstede, 1991, "Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind", Mc-Graw-Hill, (paperback HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-637740-8)
Geert Hofstede became famous with his book "Culture's
Consequences" (1980) that contained statistical data about the cultural
differences between IBM employees. This book is 10 years younger and
contains the results of many follow up studies done since the first book
menioned and points out how these differences can be managed.
- Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hampden-Turner, 1997 (2nd
ed.), "Riding the Waves of Culture - Understanding cultural
diversity in business", Nicholas Brealey Publishing,
Frons Trompenaars was introduced to the subject by Geert
Hofstede. He extended the research: testing 9 cognitive patterns and
collecting over 30.000 cultural questionnaires which have been summarized
in this book.
- Merlevede, P.E., 1997a, Analyzing language and behavior in Top
Performers - Its uses in the employment area, International Colloquium
on New Technologies based Learning and Employment Support, R.U.Gent,
September 1997, Belgium
< article on Acknowledge website. >
- The LAB Profile meeting place contains several research papers and statistical analysis of distributions
DOMAIN 2: COMET - evaluating competence
The core of the COMET system is a methodology to model the behavior of top-performers in order to build a competence dictionary and to question these competencies using behavior based interviewing methods. We have applied this methodology to recruiting, assessment center and coaching (this method consists mainly of interviews and other "off-line" work.).
Once the competence model is built, it can be used as a basis for an behavior-based interview template or for developing a questionnaire. In recent years jobEQ has developed a fully internet based 360� feedback system to test competencies. A free demo-questionnaire is available from jobEQ's Public Profiling System. The free demo is a self-assesment of your emotional intelligence competencies based on the book "7 Steps to Emotional Intelligence".
- Overview of Research findings from various COMET/EQ research projects
- Boyatzis, R., 1982, The Competent Manager: A model for effective performance, John Wiley & Sons, New York
- Spencer, L.M. & Spencer, S.M., 1993, Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
- Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C.K., 1994, Competing for the Future, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 327p.
- Robert Wood & Tim Payne, 1998, Competence Based Recruitment and Selection, (John Wiley & Sons)
- Goleman, D., 1998a, Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books, New York, 383pp.
- Lucia, A.D. & Lepsinger, R., 1999, The art and science of Competency Models, Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, 197pp.
- A related article: COMET & the problems with self-assessment
DOMAIN 3: CULTURE: value systems & evolution theory
Cultural fit is the third pillar of jobEQ's testing suite. We can test values off-line (during an interview), but our new VSQ questionnaire is in the works. For building this test, we combined Graves' evolutionary model with Parson's value-orientation model (see higher) and Nietzsche's notion of value hierarchies to build jobEQ's Value Systems Questionnaire.
Since Graves' death, his evolutionary model has been mainly promoted by Don Beck and Christopher Cowan. The result is "Spiral Dynamics", a model of personal evolution and of development of personal values that underlie transformation of organizations and of social movements world-wide. Don Beck is also a member of Ken Wilber's Integral Psychology research group, as is Brian Van der Horst.
You can try out a beta-release in the Public Profiling System. We are in contact with several specialists for peer-reviewing this questionnaire. As soon as the peer-review is complete, the questionnaire will be officially released.
- Friedrich Nietzsche, 1887, On the Genealogy of Morals,
Nietzsche was the first to point out in this work that a main philosophical problem is to determine the true hierarchy of values. The notion of determining a person's hierarchy of values has been built into our Graves inspired Value Systems Questionnaire.
- Clare W. Graves, Levels of Human Existence, A transcription Edited by William R. Lee, ECLET Publishing, 2002
- Don Edward Beck & Christopher C. Cowan, 1996, Spiral Dynamics - mastering values, leadership and change, Blackwell Publishers.
- Ken Wilber, 2000, Integral Psychology, Shambhala Publishing, Boston & London
- Patrick E.C. Merlevede, 2002, Value Systems and Cultural Fit
- "Standards for educational and psychological testing", American Educational Research Association, American Psychological association and the National Council on Measurement in Education, ISBN: 0-935302-25-5
- Patrick E.C. Merlevede, 2000, Emotional Intelligence as enabler for better business results, Gestion 2000 Special Issue "Formations Septembre-Decembre 2000".
- Patrick E.C. Merlevede, 2000, "7 Steps to Emotional Intelligence", Crown House Publishing
(revised translation of "7 Lessen in Emotionele Intelligentie" - Garant Uitgeverij, 1999)
- Patrick E.C. Merlevede, 2000, "Psychological Tests - Sense or Non-Sense?",
< article on jobEQ website. >
- < jobEQ's view on problems and solutions for the Recruiting Process. >
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